A young scientist was in charge of looking after a famous expert coming to speak at a conference. The scientist’s duties were to pick the expert up at the airport, and then introduce her at the conference. The responsibility of introducing the expert almost overwhelmed the young scientist. He sweated over writing the introduction for days and woke up at nights worrying about it.
When the scientist picked up the expert from the airport, she asked if they could stop for a quick cup of coffee. As they sat down, she casually asked the scientist to remind her of the title of her speech. Shocked he told her. As she drank her coffee, she pulled out an envelope from her bag and scribbled a few notes. When she’d finished the young scientist took her to the venue, stumbled through his carefully scripted introduction and then watched her give a brilliant talk.
The message of this story is NOT that winging it is a winning strategy. Rather the message is that after many years of hard work and experience (Malcolm Gladwell’s 10,000 hours) you can make it look easy.
How can you get from being the young scientist to the expert? There are stages of development that most of us seem to go through. I can recognize five stages that I’ve gone through and that most of the people I coach go through. I can generally identify the stage that a speaker is at by what they’re most concerned about, so I’ve noted this as I describe each stage.
Stage 1: It’s all about the words
When I started out in Toastmasters, I wrote everything out word for word. I would go through copious revisions, generating mountains of paper as I laboriously fine-tuned what I wanted to say. In my early speeches I had a full script in front of me as I spoke. Then I tried memorizing what I wanted to say – all I achieved was transferring the script to inside my head – with the attendant risk of a total mind freeze.
At this stage of my speaking, I didn’t care about connecting with the audience. My aim was simply to get through my presentation still standing.
The people that I coach that are at this level are most concerned about remembering everything they want to say and getting it exactly right.
Stage 2: I can talk
Once I got to Stage 2, I realized there was more to speaking than just getting through a sequence of words. I started to trust myself to work from notes – rather than a complete script. I noticed that there was an audience out there – though I still didn’t know what to do about them.
People at this stage tend to be concerned about being clear and understandable, and having their presentations “flow”.
Fast-track hints to Stage 2
- Join Toastmasters. Though it’s not perfect, Toastmasters is the organization for getting lots of hours under your belt. And for many people, more experience is what helps to develop that trust in yourself.
- Realize that a presentation or speech is about sharing ideas, not sentences.
How to get the most out of Toastmasters
There’s no such thing as the perfect presentation
How to stop waffling once and for all
Why your presentation shouldn’t flow
How to prevent and recover from mind blanks
Stage 3: Hello audience
I was getting good at the Toastmaster style of speaking – but that wasn’t helping me connect with my audience. It was a comment from my partner, Tony Burns, that helped me see the light. When I first experimented talking to people – individual people in my audience – I felt like I was giving a speech for the first time.
I made sure I knew my content well, and then my focus was on expressing those ideas and thoughts to the people in front of me.
At stage 3, the major concern of people I coach is to be interesting and engaging.
Fast-track hints to Stage 3
- Talk outside of Toastmasters. Toastmasters can have you stuck inside a certain “Toastmaster mode” of speaking which isn’t conducive to connection with your audience.
- Give the same presentation many times. If you’re giving a new presentation, you’re likely to be inside your own head, rather than reaching out to the audience.
- Choose to take questions throughout your presentation rather than making people wait till the end.
- Get a skilled coach who can point you the way towards connection.
- Watch yourself on video.
What to look for in a presentation skills trainer
8 tips for encouraging questions in your presentation
How to survive watching yourself on video
7 ways to keep audience attention during your presentation
8 states of mind that will make you a more compelling presenter
Stage 3A: Spontaneity (side-track)
OK, I didn’t go through this stage, but I’ve noticed it in other people. This is where you realize that you can talk and connect with an audience without having planned a great deal. Chris Brogan describes it like this:
I’ve worked strictly in the moment, like an improv actor or an artist or a cook. I take all the raw pieces of my conversations and work them into pieces of information on the fly and in real time.
I enjoy it. My audience doesn’t seem to like it as much. They come away appreciative of my passion but no more ready to take action.
I appreciate Chris’s honesty. It’s an ego-boost to be able to improvise in front of an audience – but it’s not an effective way to pass on your message.
How to get out of this side-track
If you feel this approach is working for you, get feedback from an unbiased professional to check you’re right.
Stage 4: It’s all about the audience
This is the stage where you realize it’s not about you, it’s about the audience. I love Nancy Duarte’s way of expressing this: “your audience is the hero”. This is the stage where I would put myself now.
The difference between stage 3 and stage 4 is this: in stage 3 you want the audience to be interested and engaged – because it makes you feel good! In Stage 4, you subsume your needs to those of the audience. You’re willing to take risks and make a fool of yourself.
Fast-track hints to Stage 4
- Experiment with making a fool of yourself.
- Take an improv class.
- Ask questions of your audience and incorporate audience participation into your presentations.
What makes a good public speaker
Three ideas from improv to develop your speaking
The 10 steps to asking questions so you get an answer every time
Why most attempts at audience participation fail and what to do about it
Six Secrets from a Professional Speaker on Audience Participation
Stage 5: Storytelling Mastery
This is what I’m working on now. Sure, I can tell stories and I can make people laugh, but I know that I’ve got a way to go to master this skill. In April, I’m attending Doug Stevenson’s Storytelling Retreat. For two and a half days, along with three other people, I’ll be coached intensively by Doug on on developing and delivering one story.
Stages 6,7 and 8
I’ll let you know when I get there.
I’d love you to share the stages of development you’ve gone through as a speaker, where you’re at now, and what are some of the things that have made the most difference to your development.